Scientific research in computing science
Study the list of topical vocabulary to avoid the difficulties in understanding the text of this unit. Consult a dictionary to pronounce the words correctly.
|abandon||отказываться, отменять, оставлять|
|applicability||применимость, пригодность, целесообразность применения|
|approach||подход, метод, способ, принцип|
|coherent||когерентный, связанный, согласованный|
|collate||сравнивать, сопоставлять, подбирать|
|conclusion||вывод, заключение, результат, завершение|
|endeavour||попытка, усилие, область науки|
|explicitly||очевидно, ясно, особо, подробно, точно|
|fail||терпеть неудачу, провалиться, ослабевать|
|imply||заключать в себе, подразумевать, означать|
|invalid||ложный, неоправдывающийся, непригодный, неприменимый|
|investigation||исследование, разработка, изучение|
|key feature||основная (главная) особенность|
|objection||возражение, несогласие, недостаток|
|observable effect Scientific research in computing science||видимый эффект|
|proof||доказательство, обоснование, оправдание|
|resemble||иметь сходство, напоминать, быть похожим|
|significance||значение, смысл, важность, значительность|
|solution||решение, разрешение, объяснение|
|verification||осуществление контроля, проверка, подтверждение|
Match these word combinations with their Russian equivalents.
|discover new facts||практические исследования|
|exaggerated claims||новые выводы|
|empirical research||ложное заключение|
|incorrect assumptions||логическое доказательство|
|invalid conclusion||природа исследования|
|logical argument||опираться на пояснения|
|nature of research||преувеличенные заявления|
|new conclusions||открывать новые факты|
|rely upon the interpretation||неподходящий метод исследования|
|systematic investigation||ложные предположения|
|unsatisfactory model for research||систематизированное исследование|
Read and translate the Scientific research in computing science following text.
Scientific research in computing science
The Oxford Concise dictionary defines research as 1) “the systematic investigation into and study of materials, sources, etc., in order to establish facts and reach new conclusions; 2) an endeavour to discover new or collate old facts etc. by the scientific study of a subject or by a course of critical investigation.
This definition focuses upon the systematic nature of research. In other words, the very meaning of the term implies a research method. These methods or systems essentially provide a model or structure for logical argument.
There are some models of argument.
1) Proof by Demonstration
Perhaps the most Scientific research in computing science intuitively persuasive model for research is to build something and then let that artefact stand as an example for a more general class of solutions. However, there are many reasons why this approach is an unsatisfactory model for research. The main objection is that it carries high risks. For example, the artefact may fail long before we learn anything about the conclusion that we are seeking to support. Indeed, it is often the case that this approach ignores the formation of any clear hypothesis or conclusion until after the artefact is built. This may lead the Scientific research in computing science artefact to become more important to the researcher than the ideas that it is intended to establish.
It can be summarised by the following stages:
· Hypothesis generation
This explicitly identifies the ideas that are to be tested by the research.
· Method identification
This explicitly identifies the techniques that will be used in order to establish the hypothesis. The ability to repeat an experiment is a key feature of strong empirical research.
· Result compilation
This presents and compiles the results that have been gathered from following the method. An important concept here is that of statistical significance; whether or not the observed results could be Scientific research in computing science due to chance rather than an observable effect.
The conclusions are stated either as supporting the hypothesis or rejecting it. In the case that results do not support a hypothesis, this may be due to a weakness in the method. Conversely, successful results might be based upon incorrect assumptions. Hence, it is vital that all details of a method are made available to peer review.
3) Mathematical Proof
It is possible to identify two different approaches to the use of formal proof as a research technique in computing science:
the argument of verification.
The classical approach is to allow Scientific research in computing science a human to interactively guide a theorem proving system towards some sequence of proof steps that support the conclusion. The problem here is that if the human cannot construct a proof, this does not imply that the conclusion is invalid. Simply that they have failed to prove it. Another person might be capable of constructing the necessary mathematical argument.
the argument of refutation.
Rather than attempting to prove the correctness of an argument, this approach attempts to refute it. Typically, this is done by setting up a description of the intended system behaviour. Model checking tools then automatically explore Scientific research in computing science the state space of the proposed application in an attempt to find a situation in which the desired conclusion does not hold.
The attractions of mathematical proof techniques are very strong. They provide a coherent framework for analysing research questions in computing science. They also explicitly state the criteria for valid inferences, as well as the environmental conditions, that restrict the scope and applicability of the reasoning process. There are, however, many problems that limit the utility of this approach as a general research tool.
The first is that incredible care needs to be made over the interpretation of results Scientific research in computing science from mathematical proof. Formal methods are nothing more than a system of argumentation and mistakes are to be expected. Problems arise because mistakes can be very difficult to detect given the complex nature of the mathematics that are often used. Recall that a central feature of the empirical approach was that open peer review should be used to check that your method is correct.
The second problem with formal reasoning is that their scope is limited. Interactive and time critical systems pose specially challenges for the application of mathematics. These issues are being addressed but many problems remain.
The third problem Scientific research in computing science relates to the cost of applying formal techniques. It takes a long time to acquire the necessary skills. Similarly, it can take several months to conduct relatively simple proofs for medium to large scale applications.
Finally, it can be argued that there is inadequate discussion about the failures of formal methods. Again, it is important to recall that a failure to prove a hypothesis was a valuable result for empirical techniques. Exaggerated claims have been made for formal reasoning, typically not by the researchers themselves, and many of these claims have been falsified. As a result errors in the Scientific research in computing science application of mathematical reasoning can be seen as a source of shame rather than a learning opportunity for one's colleagues and peers.
Hermeneutic research relies upon the interpretation of signs and observations in the working context rather than on explicitly asking people about the performance of their systems. Hermeneutics techniques urge researchers to enter into the workplace. Taken to an extreme, the performance of an algorithm could only be assessed in field trials with real sets of data on existing architectures with `real' levels of loading from other applications. This stress upon the analysis of a final Scientific research in computing science implementation closely resembles proof by demonstration. The major difference, however, is that the researcher approaches the context of work with an open mind and without any set hypothesis to prove or disprove. This raises problems for the conduct of directed research because users may not use programs in the manner that was intended. For example, it can be difficult to demonstrate that one search engine is faster than another if users continually abandon their requests after one or two items are returned or if they only use those search engines once or twice in their working day.
Computing Scientific research in computing science science is an immature discipline. Vast resources have also been poured into the subject in a relatively short period of time. This has brought startling advances in both hardware and software engineering. Unfortunately the development of computing technology has not been matched by a similar development in academic research techniques. In the pursuit of technological goals, researchers have borrowed models of argument and discourse from disciplines as varied as philosophy, sociology and the natural sciences. This lack of any agreed research framework reflects the strength and vitality of computing science.